The victory also extended Argentina’s unbeaten run to 35, which is two behind Italy’s world record of 37.
Manchester City striker Julian Alvarez put Lionel Scaloni’s side in front after being set up by Lautaro Martinez.
Messi, 35, came on after 56 minutes before stroking in a shot and curling in a free-kick late on.
The Paris St-Germain forward’s double – on the back of scoring twice in a win against Honduras – took his tally to 90 goals in a record 164 appearances for his country.
The game in New Jersey was Argentina’s last before the World Cup.
The two-time World Cup champions, who are among the favourites for this year’s tournament, open their campaign in Qatar against Saudi Arabia on 22 November.